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Rhetorica: A Journal of the History of Rhetoric

Editor :

Robert Gaines, University of Maryland

41 (2023)
Published quarterly for the International Society for the History of Rhetoric, Rhetorica welcomes articles and book reviews that address the theory and practice of rhetoric in all periods and languages and their relationships with poetics, philosophy, religion, and law. Submissions to Rhetorica must be composed in English, French, German, Italian, Latin, or Spanish. However, authors may discuss and quote texts written in any language for which there exists a Unicode script.
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Journal Details

41 (2023)
Print: 0734-8584
Online: 1533-8541

The Hopkins Press Journals Ethics and Malpractice Statement can be found at the ethics-and-malpractice page.

Rhetorica Guidelines for Manuscript Preparation

Manuscripts submitted to Rhetorica: A Journal of the History of Rhetoric should be original and not be under consideration elsewhere or previously published in whole or part without acknowledgement in the manuscript. More generally, Rhetorica endorses The European Code of Conduct for Research Integrity, rev. ed. (Berlin: ALLEA—All European Academies, 2017; and expects that all submissions are compliant with the principles of this Code.

The identity of authors is concealed from evaluators of manuscripts; therefore, each submission should include a separate title page containing the title of the essay and the author’s name, mailing address, email address, and phone number. Besides the title and the author's name, this page should not contain information that would form part of the published article envisioned in the manuscript. The author’s identity should not otherwise be revealed in the manuscript (third person references to the author's published research may be revised once a manuscript is accepted for publication). The essay title should be repeated on the first page of the text of the manuscript.

Manuscripts, including text, quotations, and notes, must be double-spaced throughout and generally should contain 8,000 to 12,000 words, including notes. Authors are responsible for verifying all quotations, citations, and references in the manuscript before submission. Quotations must be collated word-by-word with source texts. Sources and locations of citations in source texts must be confirmed. Documentation of facts of publication for all works cited in must be scrutinized for accuracy and completeness. Authors are responsible for correct spelling, capitalization, and punctuation at every stage of the publication process. Authors are also responsible for correct end-of-line word divisions in page-proof review.

Prior to final acceptance of any article for publication in Rhetorica, authors need to ensure that the article conforms to these guidelines. The guidelines are an implementation of The Chicago Manual of Style, 17th ed. (Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 2017; hereafter CMOS), and for any matter of documentation not addressed in particulars presented here, CMOS serves as the authority.

  1. Authors must compose manuscripts in one of the following languages: English, French, German, Italian, Latin, or Spanish. However, authors may discuss and quote texts written in any language for which there exists a Unicode script (see
  2. Typescripts should be double-spaced in Word files (.doc or .docx format), and Times or Times New Roman 12 font should be used throughout the manuscript. Document size should be 8.5 x 11 or A4 with 1-inch margins and hyphenation option turned off. Margins must be justified flush left (with certain exceptions for quotations and notes containing languages that are printed from right to left). All documentation of sources must be presented exclusively in notes. Notes should be formatted as endnotes in the manuscript. The beginning of the first paragraph in each section of the manuscript is not indented. Paragraphs thereafter are indented using the Word horizontal rule (do not insert tabs or spaces). Place page numbers at the bottom middle of each page with the title page numbered 1 and all other pages numbered sequentially.
  3. In submitted manuscripts, after the Article Title (at the top of page 1), include an “Abstract”at the beginning of the manuscript of about 100 words. For purposes of manuscript review, the language of abstracts should match the language of the article. Following the Abstract, provide a limited number of “Keywords” at the beginning of the manuscript. The language of these Keywords should also match the language in which the manuscript is composed.
  4. For all Subheads in the manuscript, differentiate heading levels by including the appropriate <A level>, <B level>, <C level> code next to the heading (for example, Themes in Dialogus de oratoribus <A level>; Decline of Oratory <B level>.
  5. For any textual passage that is quoted in Rhetorica, it is necessary that the source(s) of the quotation be fully documented. This principle applies to primary texts and translated texts. So, for example, a quotation of Aristotle’s Rhetoric in Greek must be documented with reference to the specific published source from which the text is drawn. Where the text quoted is unpublished, the source material that supports the text (or reading) must be documented. Where the quotation is a translation, both the original language source and the translating source must be fully documented.
  6. Block quotes are used to format quotations that are 100 words or longer:  Indent block quotes and leave an extra space above and below them. Do not place quotation marks at the beginning and end of the block quote.  For purposes of manuscript submission, mark the beginning of any block quote with this coding <ext> and the ending of the block quote with this coding </ext>. Poetry may be presented in block quote format: For poetry set as a block quote off from text, indicate line breaks with a hard return. If you cannot fit the entire line of poetry on your typed copy, let the text wrap and indicate the end of the line with a hard return. For poetry set in line with text or notes, use space-slash-space between each line, for example, Robert Burns, “Some o’ you nicely ken the laws, / To round the period an’ pauſe, / An’ with rhetoric clauſe on clauſe / To mak harangues; / Then echo thro’ Saint Stephen’s wa’s / Auld Scotland’s wrangs.” (“The Author’s Earnest Cry and Prayer, To the Right Honorable and Honorable, the Scotch Repreſentatives in the Houſe of Commons,” in Poems, chiefly in the Scottish Dialect, by Robert Burns, 3rd. ed. [London, GB: A. Strahan, T. Cadell, and W. Creech, 1787], 37)
  7. Regarding Hyphens, En dashes, and Em dashes: Enter hyphens as you would be advised by CMOS 6.76–77; for example, twelfth-century preaching. For dates, page ranges, and other numerical ranges, also use a hyphen (for example, 1400-1600 CE, x-xi, §§16-18). These hyphens will be replaced by en dashes in the proof sheet production process. For normal dashes, use two unspaced hyphens, for example, “For an em dash–one that indicates a break in a sentence like this–type two hyphens (leave no space on either side).” (Cf. CMOS 2.14) These double hyphens will be replaced by em dashes in the proof sheet production process.
  8. For word strings that require italics, use the italic font option in Word. Otherwise, by default any words that appear underlined in a manuscript will be changed to italic font.
  9. Acknowledgments of all sorts should be placed in an unnumbered note preceding all the regular, numbered notes.
  10. If your manuscript includes a non-Latin script (e.g., polytonic Greek or Arabic), submit the text with that script in Unicode. If your manuscript includes a Latin script with diacritics or any non-Latin script, accompany your submission with a complete manuscript in PDF.
  11. Short phrases transliterated in Latin script from languages that employ non-Latin scripts should be italicized (at least in their first instance, CMOS 11.75). Transliterations of Arabic, Chinese, Japanese, Hebrew, Russian, South Asian languages, and classical Greek should conform to the specifications set out by CMOS (11.71–1 (Note especially that classical Greek transliterations require macrons over the letters representing eta [ē] and omega [ō].) For other non-Latin scripts, authors should document the source for transliteration principles used in their manuscripts.
  12. Authors may quote either in translation or in the original language, depending on the point they are making. However, when consultation of primary sources is important for the argument, the primary source should be provided in the original language. Original language quotations must be accompanied by translations either immediately following the quotation in the text or in a note. Where notes contain passages in the original language, a translation must appear in the note as well. If translations are created by the author, this fact must be specified, either globally or case by case. If translations are not created by the author, the translator must always be identified in documentation. Italics (not underlines) should be used for titles of books, periodicals, works of art, and short phrases in foreign languages.
  13. Notes should be confined mainly to documentation of references and quotations. Notes may also be used to contextualize the author’s argument in the article. However, unless they are directly related the author’s argument, notes should not be used to provide literary history of sources, reviews of literature on topics incidental the author’s argument, or critical commentary on texts interpreted by the author. Use the normal endnote feature of your word-processing program (Word or Word compatible). In the first note where a work is mentioned, facts of publication for references should be given in full (except whenever there is a particular page citation to the work, do not also include the full page-range for that work). In subsequent notes, the work may be referred to in a shortened, but clear form (i.e., author last name, work title, and page or canonical reference). Immediately following a full or shortened reference to a single source, references to that source may be transacted by placing page numbers in parenthesis (CMOS 13.66, 14.34)
  14. Places of publication must be documented for all books. Publishers must be documented for books from 1900 onward (CMOS 14.128). However, it is permissible and often preferable to include publisher names for books published before 1900. Titles of books, journal, and series must be presented in full.
  15. Never use f., ff., ibid, idem, loc. cit., op. cit., or passim. in notes or parenthetical citations (cf. CMOS 14.34-36; 14.149).
  16. Notes should almost never include cross-references to page numbers or note numbers in the manuscript. When employed, cross-references must be assiduously verified in article proof sheets by the author (CMOS 14.28).
  17. Do not use “quoted in” (or secondary source) citations except when absolutely necessary and, then, only with scrupulous attention to full documentation of both the original source as well as the secondary source that provides information about the original source (CMOS 14.260). “Quoted in” is necessary when the original source no longer exists (e.g., a manuscript lost or destroyed) or the original source is very difficult to access (e.g., a pamphlet in a private collection or an article in a journal available only in a few libraries worldwide).
  18. The following are departures from CMOS that are observed in the Rhetorica Guidelines:
    (a) In references to books published in the 18th century or later, after all places of publication, provide an abbreviated indication of the appropriate state or country of the place; e.g., Berlin, DE; Cairo, EG; Cambridge, GB; Copenhagen, DK; Geneva, CH; Kyiv, UA; Leiden, NL; Madrid, ES; New York, NY; Paris, FR; Rio de Janeiro, BR; Rome, IT; Leiden, NL (for alpha-2 country codes, see
    (b) In references to multi-volume books where a volume number and colon precedes a page number or a page range, insert a space after the colon: e.g., 1: 110; 5: 421–422.
    (c) In references to inclusive numbers, use complete, not abbreviated numbers; e.g., 101–108; 321–328; 808–833; 1103–1104; 12991–13001.
  19. Documentation of sources cited for the first and subsequent times should be composed consistent with the following samples:

    Journal Article

    Sophie Gotteland, “Le Contre Timarque d'Eschine: prolégomènes à un Art rhétorique?” Rhetorica: A Journal of the History of Rhetoric 39, no. 4 (Autumn 2021): 410–11,

    Gotteland, “Le Contre Timarque,” 410–11.

    Chapter in a Single-Authored Book

    Salvador Mas Torres, “Más sobre politica: cuestiones retóricas,” in Epicuro, epicúreos y el epicureísmo en Roma, Artes y humanidades (Madrid: Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia, 2018), 414.

    Mas Torres, “Más sobre politica: cuestiones retóricas,” 414.

    Chapter in Multi-Authored, Edited Book

    Dietmar Till, “Nach der Topik. Zur Lehre von der Invention im 18. Jahrhundert,” in Pithanologie: Exemplarische Studien zum Überzeugenden, ed. Michael Pietsch and Markus Mülke, Rhetorik—Forschungen 23 (Berlin: De Gruyter, 2020), 269.

    Till, “Nach der Topik,” 269.

    Edition of Primary Text

    Gualtiero Calboli, ed., trans., comm., “Prolegomena,” in Cornifici seu Incerti Auctoris Rhetorica ad C. Herennium, 3 vols., Samlung wissenschaftllicher Commentare (Berlin: De Gruyter, 2020), 1: 110.

    Calboli, “Prolegomena,” 1: 110.


    David C. Mirhady, ed. and trans., introduction to Rhetoric to Alexander, in Aristotle. Problems, Volume II: Books 20-38. Rhetoric to Alexander, ed. and trans. Robert Mayhew, David C. Mirhady, Loeb Classical Library 317 (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2011), 451.

    Mirhady, Rhetoric to Alexander, 451.

    Single-Authored Book

    Rita Copeland, Emotion and the History of Rhetoric in the Middle Ages, Oxford Studies in Medieval Literature and Culture (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2021), 134.

    Copeland, Emotion and the History of Rhetoric, 134.


    Carrie Chapman Catt, “The Woman's Century, 1820–1920,” 9 June 1936, Carrie Chapman Catt Papers, Manuscript Division, U. S. Library of Congress, 2.

    Catt, “Woman’s Century,” 2.

  20. Miscellaneous

    BCE and CE (full caps, no periods)
    Double quotation marks, then single within double.
    Spaces between initials: C. S. Peirce.
    For “see” in note references, please use the full word of the language in which the manuscript is composed; do not use v. or its equivalent.
    Use “cf.” only when inviting the reader to “compare” one source or passage with the present source or passage (this with an implication of difference).
    Empty space before and after three-dot ellipses, thus x . . . y. (Please do not use the ellipsis symbol!)
    Commas and periods within quotation marks, thus “abc,” and “abc.”
    Commas after the penultimate member of a series before the ultimate, thus a, b, and c.

  21. Along with the final, accepted version of your manuscript, please submit accurate name, address, and contact information as you would like it to appear in the contributor list.
  22. The editor reserves the right to edit for style, sense, accuracy, and completeness.


Last Updated November 21, 2022

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