Author Instructions

Note: Library Trends does not accept single-article submissions; rather, each issue covers a specific topic and manuscript submissions are invited and organized by guest editor(s).


Manuscripts must be submitted in Microsoft Word, typically via e-mail or an electronic file sharing service, to the guest editor, who will then shepherd them through the review process.

Articles published in Library Trends are typically in the range of 4,000-10,000 words, not including references and supplementary material. Longer or shorter submissions can be accommodated, but this is dependent on the significance of the content and subject in consultations with the guest and general editors. 

brief abstract (200 words maximum) should appear at the beginning of the article, and a biography for each author (150 words maximum) should be included at the end.

If you are including an acknowledgement statement, this should be inserted at the end of the text, before the references and endnotes.


The general rule for text formatting is to follow The Chicago Manual of Style, 17th Edition (; however, the following guidelines should be sufficient to prepare most manuscripts.

  • Use Times New Roman 12 pt. type and justify to the left only.
  • Manuscripts should be single spaced.
  • Insert a double space between paragraphs.
  • Use American English spelling (except within quotes).
  • Number pages consecutively throughout the manuscript in the footer of the Word document.
  • Do not insert any header or footer other than the page number.
  • Only use bullets for vertical lists (do not use numbered lists).
  • Lengthy quotes (normally exceeding 5 lines) should be formatted as block quotations and indented from the left margin only.
  • Format subheads consistently, using no more than three levels; for example: capitals (level 1); italics (level 2); italics run-in to paragraph text (level 3). Justify all headings to the left. Subhead examples are:


Level 2

Level 3. Run-in to paragraph text

  • To mark divisions without using subheads, center three asterisks on a separate line, as follows:


Notes can be used for narrative expansions of the text but should be used sparingly. Do not use a note to state a URL or to cite a source. Follow the guidelines given below for citing all materials in the list of references. If using notes, use the automated note-preparation facility in Word and use endnotes, not footnotes. In your submitted Word document, it is permissible for endnotes to appear after the list of references, with this being a feature of the automated note system. Subsequently, copy editors will place endnotes before the list of references.


Follow the Chicago Manual of Style, 17th Edition (, using author-date format for citations and bibliography.  

For in-text citations, author(s) last name and date are sufficient. If you are including a direct quote, then page number(s) should be added; e.g.:

  • (Baker 2006)
  • (Baker 2006, 174)

Please note the following brief, general guidelines for formatting items in the bibliography:

  1. Do not use hanging indents
  2. Do not place parentheses around year of source
  3. Include quotation marks around article and chapter titles
  4. Use headline-style capitalization of titles
    • e.g., format as “Time as a Context of Information Seeking” rather than “Time as a context of information seeking”
  5. For periodical articles:
    • Do not place a comma before the volume number
    • List volume number in plain font rather than italics
    • Put the issue number in parentheses
    • Include a space between the volume and issue numbers
    • Use a colon rather than comma before page numbers in periodicals
      • e.g., Information Processing & Management 35 (6): 801–17.
  6. List inclusive page numbers condensed
    • e.g., “210-25” rather than “210-225”
  7. Do not include “Retrieved from” with URL
  8. Add a period at the end of a bibliography entry even when the entry ends with a URL or doi number

Anything cited in the text needs to be in the list of references. Conversely, anything in the list of references requires a citation in the text.

Do not include references that are not cited in the text. If you want to recommend additional sources, the text should make these recommendations so that the sources are appropriately cited in the reference list. In rare cases, a list of additional readings may be appropriate but must be discussed in advance with the managing editor.

All Internet, web, or online source must have an in-text citation and be in the list of references. It is not sufficient to insert a URL in the text itself.

Maintain consistency within your references in terms of treatment of authors’ given names; either use all initials or spell out all given names. If, however, a particular author consistently uses only initials when authoring publications, use initials for that author even if the names in your other references are spelled out.

The Chicago Manual of Style website provides basic examples; however, be careful to click to view the tab with the Author-Date formatting, as the default on the website is Notes and Bibliography, which is not the correct style for Library Trends:

You may also find the Purdue OWL useful for guidance (, and in particular the author-date sample paper (


Collect all tables together in a separate Word file. Do not embed them in the text.

Tables should be formatted in Word as grayscale text, not as a graphic image.

Include column headings and explain all abbreviations and terms, making them consistent with usage in the text. Use “%” (do not spell out as percent) in tables.

Include a call-out in the text to show where each table should be inserted (e.g., INSERT TABLE 1 HERE). We will do our best to accommodate the desired location of the table.

Place a caption beneath the call-out. The caption should include the table number, followed by a description;

  • e.g., “Table 1: Rates of Book and Periodical Inflation, 1980-2010”


Submit each figure in a separate file (JPG or TIF). Do not submit photographs or illustrations as Word files, as they make for very poor quality.

Do not submit files in color but rather convert to grayscale. Because the journal is produced in grayscale, the benefits of colors will be lost and distinctions made in the text based on color will not be evident to readers.

Images should be scanned at 300 dpi or higher and saved as grayscale files in TIF or JPG. Line art, such as bar graphs and pie charts, should be submitted at a resolution of 900 pixels/inch at a size close to but no larger than 4 x 7 inches.

Each figure should be numbered and have a caption. Place a call-out and the attached caption in the text at the required point. We will do our best to accommodate the desired location.

Figure captions should include the figure number, a description, and (if applicable) a permission or source statement


It is the responsibility of the author to obtain permissions that may be required to reprint any copyrighted material, whether previously published or not, that falls outside the bounds of fair use. Such permissions must be obtained in writing and should be completed at the request of the managing editor, who reviews manuscripts after they have been submitted to the guest editor. The managing editor is responsible for providing the proper form for authors to use in requesting and obtaining permissions. Authors should acknowledge receipt of permissions in captions at the appropriate place in the manuscript.


If you have any questions about the preparation of your manuscript, please consult the Managing Editor of Library Trends, Cindy Ashwill, Assistant Dean for Communications, School of Information Sciences, email: