Author Guidelines

Submission of Articles

  • Submissions should be cast so as to be directly relevant to Late Antiquity. Please submit your paper in the form of an attachment in MS Word to Andrew Cain For the sake of anonymity during the review process, please be sure that all identifying information is deleted from the file.
  • Your name should not appear in the title, body, or header/footer of the manuscript; cite works by yourself in the third person; do not include personal notes (acknowledgments, thanks, references to oral presentation, etc.). Please also submit a PDF of your paper if it includes non-English fonts (e.g., Greek).
  • For questions of style, punctuation, and spelling not covered in the JLA style sheet, please consult the Chicago Manual of Style, 15th ed. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2003), hereafter Chicago (also available in online format through most research libraries); and Merriam-Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed. (Springfield: Merriam-Webster, 1996), hereafter MWCD . If there are variant spellings of the same word, we prefer the first entry in MWCD.
  • Normally submissions should not exceed 10,000 words, including footnotes.

Final article preparation

    1. General

      1. Once your article has been accepted, JLA requires an electronic attachment containing

        1. An exact copy of the revised piece in MS Word;
        2. A PDF of the revised piece (exact copy);
        3. A separate file for each digital image you wish to publish (at least 300 dpi at 4 × 6 inches, TIFF format for photos, EPS or TIFF for figures;
        4. Permissions to publish any copyrighted images or graphics;
        5. A list of all captions in MS Word, including any necessary credits.
      2. Incorporate an abstract (no more than 200 words) into the final document, placing the abstract between the title and the text. Type the abstract in italics.
      3. If you wish, you may add a short acknowledgement as an unnumbered note before the first footnote.
      4. At the end of your text, please indicate in italics your affiliation and email address.
      5. Once an article has been typeset, the author will receive only a single set of page proofs, intended solely to catch inaccuracies or mistakes (by author or typesetter). We are not able to accommodate changes of style or content at that late stage. Please ensure that the final version of your article is exactly as you want it to appear in print before you send it to JLA.
    2. Manuscript Format

      1. Basic format: All content should be double-spaced, including block quotes, poetry, and footnotes. Leave at least 1-inch margins on all sides of the paper. If possible, use standard American page size (8.5 × 11.0 inches).
      2. Font: Use Times New Roman 12-point font throughout and do not use boldface, small caps, or superscript except for footnote references. Italics can and should be used (a) to indicate emphasis, (b) for titles of books and journals, and (c) for citations in Latin or direct quotations of foreign languages in Roman script.
      3. Subheadings: Treat all first-level subheadings as plain roman boldface type; italicize any titles or (e.g.) Latin terms that fall within the syntax of the subheading. Make second-level subheadings plain roman text, italicizing only as needed.

        examples:        <level 1>  Reading Macrobius, On the Dream of Scipio
        <level 2>  The Interpretatio Christiana Reconsidered
      4. Notes: Use footnotes (not endnotes), numbered consecutively throughout and double-spaced (see below for format).
      5. Margins: Please leave the right margin ragged; do not justify your text.
      6. Hyphenation: Do not insert hyphens manually at the end of lines in your manuscript text. Use hyphens only when they are part of the spelling of the word (e.g., sixth-century politics, an upper-class family) or between page numbers, dates, and so on. If you are uncertain whether a hyphen should be included, please consult Chicago (sections 5.91, 7.31-43, and 7.77-85) or MWCD.
      7. Block quotation: Please indent any quotations in the body of the text that are longer than three lines as a block quotation; give them a deeper indent than the rest of your text. No extra space around block quotations is necessary.
      8. Indentation: Begin paragraphs with a tab, and use only one return at the end of paragraphs. Avoid extra spacing between paragraphs.
      9. Punctuation: All punctuation should follow American English standards (consult Chicago when in doubt).
        1. With initials/abbreviations: Leave one space after all periods in personal names; all other abbreviations with periods have no spaces. Thus: R. W. Mathisen for Ralph Whitney Mathisen, but a.m. or s.a. (for “anno mundi” and “sub anno”).
        2. Quotation marks: All punctuation should be inside quotation marks except colons and semicolons, and (sometimes) question marks and exclamation marks. Thus “Langobards,” not “Langobards”.
        3. Dashes: Please use a real em dash. In Microsoft Word go to the Insert menu at Symbol > Special Characters. Omit space on either side of the em dash—like this—for American style.
        4. Numerals: In general, spell out numbers under 100, except for parts of books and numerals in citations, page numbers, dates, etc. (e.g., “eight monks,” but chapter 6, vol. 4, p. 8, 400 BCE). In contexts involving several numbers, numerals may be used for consistency of presentation:  “125 parishes, 24 monasteries, and 7 convents.”
      10. BCE/CE: JLA prefers the use of BCE and CE to BC and AD; both placed after the year (i.e., 325 CE). Please type in ALL CAPS.
      11. Dates: Full dates style, e.g., 9 August 378, 1 January 438.
      12. Date ranges: Cite ranges of dates with all numerals, e.g., 435-438, not 435-38 or 435-8.  This includes modern dates in running text and in reference lists. (All other number ranges are elided as per Chicago section 9.60)
      13. Measures: In general, spell out measurements in running text: 35 kilometers, 8 liters, $1.5 million (US). Use abbreviations only in parentheses (35 km), in notes, and in tables and figures, and where necessary in statistical discussions. Ancient and traditional measures, where they occur, may be treated in much the same fashion.

C. Foreign Languages

(see Chicago, chap. 11, for details)

Modern languages

    1. Romance languages: Titles of works in Romance languages should have only the initial word of title and subtitle and proper nouns capitalized, i.e., they should follow “sentence style.”
    2. German: Titles of works in German should have only the initial word of the title and nouns and words used as nouns capitalized.
    3. Other: For all other modern languages, please consult Chicago.
    4. Use of italics: Nonstandard foreign words and phrases used in the text should be set in italics. If a foreign word or phrase has become standard usage in American English (e.g., en route, vice versa, Doppelgänger), do not set in italics. When in doubt, consult Chicago or MWCD. Note that JLA departs from Chicago in retaining italics with foreign terms and phrases throughout the text.

Ancient languages

    1. Fonts: JLA will print primary source citations in any ancient language for which there is a readily available (i.e. public domain) Unicode font. For Greek, use a Unicode font, preferably New Athena Unicode, available for both PCs and Macs at
    2. Accuracy: Be sure to check citations very carefully both before submitting your final manuscript and when you receive your proofs. Our typesetters are not linguists; they set what they see.
    3. Transliteration: Transliterated words should be set in italics and should follow the standards set out in the Journal of Biblical Literature guidelines (JBL117 [1998]: 558-59). To indicate long vowels in Greek, use a macron, e.g. mechanē.
    4. Transliterated and anglicized proper names: In general use anglicized names for well-known persons and places (Constantine, Ambrose, Jerome, Rome, Byzantium). Direct transliterations of personal and place names (Marcellinus, Procopius, Gallia, Dar el-Ghaghbbia) are not italicized.
    5. Italics: Quoted material in Latin and transcriptions of foreign languages in Roman script should be set in italics. Exceptions: (a) Block quotations, even in Latin and foreign languages; (b) long excerpts in the notes; (c) titles of articles in the References list.

D. Citation Format

Footnote and In-text citation

  1. Footnoting: All notes should appear at the foot of the manuscript, numbered consecutively in arabic numerals, and double-spaced.
  2. Author-date citation: Beginning with Volume 7, JLA will use a modified version of Author-Date referencing as described in Chicago Chapter 15. “Documentation II: Author-Date References. JLA differs from Chicago only in placing ALL references, primary and secondary, in footnotes rather than in the text. In-text citations are permitted in this instance alone: citations of page numbers (without author or date) in an ongoing discussion of a modern work.
  3. Modern works: To cite modern works, include only the author’s last name and year of publication (not separated by punctuation). To cite a specific passage, include a page number or range (separated from the year by a comma).

Examples (see Table 1 for corresponding bibliographic information):

R. Bagnall, Al. Cameron, and S. Schwartz 1987.
Av. Cameron and Long 1993
M. Alföldi 1963, 135-36
A. Alföldi 1948, 20-21
Witschel 2006a, 147-48
Witschel 2006b, 120-21
Stein 1949-1959, 2: 331

    1. All citations to modern works should be keyed to a reference list titled “References,” placed at the end of your article. Ancient works should not be included in the bibliography, with the exception of (a) translations that are quoted in the text and/or notes; (b) annotated translations or commentaries that are used as secondary works; (c) primary source editions that are not part of a standard series (see under “Ancient Texts” 16.c. below). See immediately below for further details.
    2. Avoid unnecessary common abbreviations: Please avoid abbreviations such as “pp.,” “vv.,” or “cols.” when possible.
    3. Avoid Latinate citation: Please do not use idem, eadem, ibidem, op. cit., loc. cit., art. cit., and the like, but rather provide the relevant abbreviated bibliographic information. Please do not use “f.”, “ff.”, “s”, or “ss.,” but rather specific inclusive page numbers. Use i.e., e.g., and etc. sparingly and only in notes or parenthetical contexts; in main syntax use “that is,” “for example,” “and so forth,” and similar phrasing.
    4. Number format: Except for date ranges, elide all page numbers as in Chicago section 9.60. E.g., 116-17, 238-39, 200-201, 1005-7, 802-6. Also see examples below.

Reference list

  1. Books: Include the Author’s last name, Author’s first name. Year of publication. Title italicized. Place of publication: Publisher. If the cited book is part of a series, include the name of the series and the volume or number (in Arabic numerals) after the title, but not set in italics.
  2. Articles: Include the Author’s last name, Author’s first name. Year of publication. “Article title in double quotation marks.” Journal title italicized [please spell out all journal titles – do not abbreviate] volume number [in Arabic numerals]: page numbers elided as under D.7.
  3. Chapters in Books: Citations of articles in multi-authored books should include Author’s last name, Author’s first name. Year of publication. “Article title in double quotation marks.” Book title italicized, edited by Editor’s First Name Last Name, page number elided as under D.7. Place of publication: Publisher.
  4. Multiple works by one author: For successive entries by the same author(s), translator(s), editor(s), or compiler(s), a 3-em dash replaces the name(s) after the first appearance.
  5. Chronological order: Arrange multiple entries for an author chronologically by year of publication in ascending order. Undated works designated forthcoming follow all dated works. Where there are two or more items with the same date assign letters to the date (1999a, 1999b) and alphabetize by title.

                                                                        [table 1 follows]

Table 1. Examples of commonly seen bibliographic styles


Alföldi, Andreas. 1948. The Conversion of Constantine and Pagan Rome.
              Translated by Harold Mattingly. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Alföldi, Maria. 1963. Die Constantinische Goldprägung. Untersuchungen zu
              Ihrer Bedeutung für Kaiserpolitik und Hofkunst
. Mainz: Verlag des
              Römisch-Germanischen Zentralmuseums.

Drake, H. A. 2000. Constantine and the Bishops: The Politics of Intolerance. Baltimore:
              The Johns Hopkins University Press.

Stein, Ernst. 1949-59. Histoire du Bas-Empire. Edited by Jean-Rémy Palanque. 2 vols.
              Paris: Desclée de Brouwer.


Books in monographic series

Cameron, Alan, and Jacqueline Long. 1993. Barbarians and Politics at the Court of
Arcadius. Transformation of the Classical Heritage 19. Berkeley/Los Angeles:
              University of California Press.


Journal articles

Carrié, Jean-Michel. 1983. “Un roman des origines: Les généalogies du ‘colonat’ du
              Bas-Empire.” Opus: International Journal for Social and Economic History of
Antiquity 2: 205–51.

Greatrex, Geoffrey, and M. Greatrex. 1999. “The Hunnic Invasion of the East of 395 and
              the Fortress of Ziatha.” Byzantion 69: 65–75.


Articles in multi-authored collections

Griffith, Sidney H. 1995. “Asceticism in the Church of Syria: The Hermeneutics of Early
              Syrian Monasticism.” In Asceticism, edited by Vincent Wimbush and Richard
              Valantasis, 220-45. New York: Oxford University Press.

Lizzi Testa, Rita. 2009. “Alle origini della tradizione pagana su Costantino e il senato
              romano (Amm. Marc. 21.10.8 e Zos. 2.32.1).” In Transformations of Late
Antiquity: Essays for Peter Brown, edited by Philip Rousseau and Manolis
              Papoutsakis, 85–127. Farnham/Burlington, VT: Ashgate.

Witschel, Christian. 2006a. “‘Verrückte Kaiser?’ Zur Selbststilisierung und
              Außenwahrrnehmung nonkonformer Herrscherfiguren in der römischen
              Kaiserzeit.” In Einblicke in die Antike: Antike: Orte, Praktiken, Strukturen.
              Münchner Kontaktstudium Geschichte 9, edited by C. Ronning, 87-129. Munich:
              Herbert Utz Verlag.

———. 2006b. “Zur Situation im römischen Africa während des 3. Jhs. n. Chr.” In
              Deleto paene imperio Romano. Transformationsprozesse des Römischen Reiches
im 3. Jahrhundert n. Chr. und ihre Rezeption in der Neuzeit, edited by K.P.
              Johne, T. Gerhardt, and U. Hartmann, 145-221. Stuttgart: Franz Steiner Verlag.


Annotated translations and Commentaries cited as secondary sources

Cain, Andrew, trans. and comm. 2013. Jerome’s Epitaph on Paula: A Commentary on
the Epitaphium Sanctae Paulae. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Mathisen, Ralph W., trans. 1999. Ruricius of Limoges and Friends: A Collection of
Letters from Visigothic Gaul. Translated Texts for Historians 30. Liverpool: Liverpool
              University Press.

Ancient Texts

PLRE = A.H.M. Jones, J.R. Martindale, and J. Morris, eds. 1971-1992. The
Prosopography of the Later Roman Empire, 3 vols. Cambridge: Cambridge
       University Press.
OCD = Simon Hornblower and Antony Spawforth, eds. 2012. The Oxford
      Classical Dictionary
, 4th ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
LS = Charlton Lewis and Charles Short. 1879. A Latin Dictionary, rev. ed.
      Oxford: Clarendon Press.
LSJ = Henry G. Liddell, Robert Scott, and Henry S. Jones. 1996. A Greek-English
, with revised supplement. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
CPL = Eligius Dekkers. 1951. Clavis patrum latinorum. Steenbrugge: In Abbatia
     Sancti Petri.
CPG = Maurice Geerard. 1974-1987. Clavis Patrum Graecorum. 5 vols.
     Turnhout: Brepols.

    1. Translation: Quotations from primary sources should generally be translated in the text, with the original language passage in the notes. Passages in ancient languages should be quoted in the text only when directly relevant to an argument (as with an inscription, poetic text, or a coin legend).
    2. Published translations: Translations should generally be by the author of the article. If a previously published English translation is cited in the article, that translation must be cited in the relevant note (together with date and page number) and referenced in full in the Modern Bibliography under the name of the translator.
    3. References: References to ancient texts should refer to the author (when known), the title of the work (italicized), and relevant numeration (books, chapter, verse, etc.) in arabic numerals (3.1, 4.3-6, 5.34b-46a).
    4. Abbreviations: All ancient authors should be cited according to standard abbreviations found in the following reference works. Follow the rank order of the following list in selecting between competing abbreviations (i.e., if the author appears in both the PLRE and the LS, use the PLRE format). A pdf of these lists of abbreviations can be obtained from the editor upon request. See Table 2 below for example citations:

Bérard François et al. 1986. Guide de l’épigraphiste: Bibliographie choisie des épigraphies
     antiques et médievales
, 3rd ed. Paris: Éditions rue d’Ulm.

Joshua d. Sosin et al. Checklist of Editions of Greek, Latin, Demotic, and Coptic Papyri,
     Ostraca and Tablets
online at:

    1. Inscriptions and Papyri: Corpora of inscriptions and papyri should follow the abbreviation lists provided in the following resources. See Table 2 below for examples of citations:
    1. Anglicized names: Anglicized names for commonly read authors (e.g. Jerome, Augustine) can and should be used in the main text but not in the notes. Hellenized spelling may be used for Greek authors (e.g. Prokopius, Ioannes Lydos). Regardless, the standard abbreviations must be used for citation in notes.
    2. Citation numbers: Use arabic numerals, not roman, throughout, and separate units within the same reference by periods with no spaces (e.g. Amm. 31.7.4). Separate distinct numerical references within the same author/work with commas (e.g. Amm. Marc. 28.2.1, 31.7.4). Separate references to different authors or differing works by the same author with semicolons. See the examples below (e.g. Amm. 31.7.4; Proc. BV 2.3.3)
    3. Text series: To ensure scholarly accuracy and accessibility to readers, authors publishing with JLA should cite critical editions of ancient texts when possible.
      1. Standard series of critical editions with enumerated volumes (CCSL, CSEL, GCS, Loeb, MGH, PG, PL, SCh, TU, etc) should be referred to parenthetically in the note by series abbreviation and volume: page number (separated by a colon and space).
      2. If the critical edition is part of a series that does not enumerate volumes (GCS, OCT, Teubner, Budé), refer only to the author, and series name (abbreviated when possible).
      3. If the critical edition is not part of a standard series, please refer to the textual editor(s), date, and page number(s) in parentheses and include a full citation to the edition in the bibliography under the editor’s name.
    4. Biblical citations: Abbreviations of biblical books should follow the guidelines laid out for the Journal of Early Christian Studies available online at:

Table 2. Examples of citations from ancient texts

Jer. Ep. 84.3.3 (CSEL 55: 123); Aug. Civ. Dei, 4.19, 6.14 (ed. Dombart,
              Teubner). See also Zos. 4.38.2 (ed. Paschoud, Budé).

Aug. Serm. 45.1 (PL 39: 1834); c. litt. Petil. 2.83[184] (CSEL 52: 112).  

Soc. 2.1 (ed. Hansen, GCS); cf. Eus. HE 4.2.2-5 (eds. Schwartz, Mommsen,
              Winkelmann, GCS). Translation from Williamson 1989, 105, slightly

Not. Dig. Or. 33.13 (ed. Faleiro 2006, 263).b

ILS 1236 = CIL 8.7016; IKPergamon 44; P.Oxy. 15.1778.

a For this citation, also insert in the reference list:
              G. A. Williamson, trans. 1989. Eusebius: The History of the Church from Christ to
              Constantine. Revised and edited by Andrew Louth. London: Penguin Books.

b For this citation, also insert in the reference list:

Concepción Neira Faleiro. 2006. La Notitia Dignitatum: Nueva edición crítica y commentario
histórico. Nueva Roma 25. Madrid: Consejo Superior de Investigationes Científicas.

Click here to download a pdf copy of these Author Guidelines.