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Bulletin of the History of Medicine
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TO APPEAR IN - upcoming issues of the Bulletin of the History of Medicine.

Introduction
Beyond Illustrations: Doing Anatomy with Images and Objects

By: Carin Berkowitz
PDF (Posted May 8, 2015)

SUMMARY: This forum engages with a central component of medical science and medical practice—the visualization of anatomy, pathology, and disease. It is about the collaborations among surgeons, medical men, and anatomists that were necessary to visualization, and about the authority bestowed upon an image or object that stands for a part of the body or a disease, and also bestowed upon the author of that object or image. It considers aesthetic choices and their social and epistemic contexts and consequences. But it is also about our practices as historians. How do we move beyond thinking of images and objects as simply illustrative? How do we pursue historical inquiry with them? And what are we responsible for conveying about their making and purpose in the images we ourselves display in our books and articles? This introduction provides a brief outline of the themes that structure the three articles collected here and begins to frame answers to such questions.


The Illustrious Anatomist: Authorship, Patronage, and Illustrative Style in Anatomy Folios, 1700–1840
By: Carin Berkowitz
PDF (Posted May 8, 2015)

SUMMARY: A number of anatomists working in the period 1700–1840 used expensive illustrated books to depict their greatest scientific work, establish priority of discovery for posterity, and enlist patrons. These anatomists drew on the grand traditions of anatomical illustration and asserted their right to a place within that history. But with artists mediating the expression of anatomists’ vision, it was important that an anatomist assert his control over the illustrations commemorating his expertise. Anatomists used stylistic signatures to signal that a work was their own. Very different styles of illustration in the works of different anatomists, therefore, were made easily recognizable, and sometimes a single artist adopted notably different styles for different anatomists who employed him. Style became a marker of authorship, identifiable with the anatomist, even when he employed an artist to do the drawing and engraving, and it was also an important method of appealing to patrons.
KEYWORDS: authorship, anatomy, illustrations, atlases, style, patronage, Hunter, Bell, Jenty, Smellie

Two Australian Fetuses: Frederic Wood Jones and the Work of an Anatomical Specimen
By: Lisa O’Sullivan and Ross L. Jones
PDF (Posted May 8, 2015)

SUMMARY: A close analysis of two fetal specimens is used to explore of role of material specimens in anatomical practice of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, the significance of Indigenous bodies in that era’s quest for an understanding of human difference, and the postcolonial legacies of the global project of creating collections of human specimens.
KEYWORDS: anatomy, human remains, museums, collecting, Frederic Wood Jones, Lamarckism

The Rise of Pathological Illustrations: Baillie, Bleuland, and Their Collections
By: Domenico Bertoloni Meli
PDF (Posted May 8, 2015)

SUMMARY: This essay examines the illustrated pathological works by Matthew Baillie (London, 1799–1803) and Jan Bleuland (Utrecht, 1826–28). Both works relied on extensive collections of specimens preserved in London and Utrecht, respectively. The essay discusses changing notions of disease, the erosion of the boundaries between surgeons and physicians, the role and significance of pathological collections, and the relations between preserved specimens and their representations.
KEYWORDS: pathological anatomy, visual representations, collections, surgery

Women Doctors and Lady Nurses: Class, Education, and the Professional Victorian Woman
By: Vanessa Heggie
PDF (Posted May 8, 2015)

SUMMARY: The lives of the first women doctors in Britain have been well studied by historians, as have the many debates about the right of women to train and practice as doctors. Yet the relationship between these women and their most obvious comparators and competitors—the newly professionalized hospital nurses—has not been explored. This article makes use of a wide range of sources to explore the ways in which the first lady doctors created “clear water” between themselves and the nurses with whom they worked and trained. In doing so, it reveals an identity that may seem at odds with some of the clichés of Victorian femininity, namely that of the intelligent and ambitious lady doctor.
KEYWORDS: women, nursing, medical education, professions, professionalization, autobiography

Debating Diseases in Nineteenth-Century Colombia: Causes, Interests, and the Pasteurian Therapeutics
By: Mónica García
PDF (Posted May 8, 2015)

SUMMARY: This article explores the medical conceptualization of the causes of diseases in nineteenth-century Colombia. It traces the history of some of the pathologies that were of major concern among nineteenth-century doctors: periodic fevers (yellow fever and malaria), continuous fevers (typhoid fever), and leprosy (Greek elephantiasis). By comparing the transforming conceptualizations of these diseases, this article shows that their changing pattern, the idea of climatic determinism of diseases (neo-Hippocratism and medical geography), the weak standing of the medical community in Colombian society, as well as Pasteurian germ practices were all crucial in the uneven and varied reshaping of their understanding.
KEYWORDS: medical geography, bacteriology, yellow fever, typhoid fever, leprosy, Colombia


Bulletin of the History of Medicine

Bulletin of the History of Medicine is the official journal of the American Association for the History of Medicine.

Volume: 89 (2015)
Frequency: Quarterly
Print ISSN: 0007-5140
Online ISSN: 1086-3176