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Bulletin of the History of Medicine
Future Publications

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• The preprints available below have not been typeset or paginated, and further edits are possible. They will be removed from this website once the issues in which they appear are published in print and on MUSE.

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TO APPEAR IN - upcoming issues of the Bulletin of the History of Medicine.

Casebooks in Early Modern England: Medicine, Astrology, and Written Records
By: Lauren Kassell
PDF (Posted October 21, 2014)

SUMMARY: Casebooks are the richest sources that we have for encounters between early modern medical practitioners and their patients. This article compares astrological and medical records across two centuries, focused on England, and charts developments in the ways in which practitioners kept records and reflected on their practices. Astrologers had a long history of working from particular moments, stellar configurations, and events to general rules. These practices required systematic notation. Physicians increasingly modeled themselves on Hippocrates, recording details of cases as the basis for reasoned expositions of the histories of disease. Medical records, as other scholars have demonstrated, shaped the production of medical knowledge. Instead, this article focuses on the nature of casebooks as artifacts of the medical encounter. It establishes that casebooks were serial records of practice, akin to diaries, testimonials, and registers; identifies extant English casebooks and the practices that led to their production and preservation; and concludes that the processes of writing, ordering, and preserving medical records are as important for understanding the medical encounter as the records themselves.
KEYWORDS: casebooks, medical records, astrology, paper technologies, cases, patients, Simon Forman, Richard Napier

Setting Scientific Standards: Publishing in Medical Societies in Nineteenth-Century Belgium
By: Joris Vandendriessche
PDF (Posted October 21, 2014)

SUMMARY: This article examines the publishing procedures of nineteenth-century medical societies, using the Medical Society of Ghent (Belgium) as a case study. It argues, more precisely, that the introduction of formalized review procedures in medical societies can be considered part of the emergence of a professional scientific culture in the first half of the nineteenth century. First, by participating in these procedures physicians took on different stylized roles, for example of the contributing author, the righteous judge, or the punctual secretary, and articulated new professional values such as contributing to science. Second, the publishing procedures of medical societies also provide insight into the mechanisms of reaching consensus in nineteenth-century medicine. By developing new scientific genres, such as the published meeting report, medical societies aimed to extend the community of peers beyond the group of society members and establish trust and agreement throughout the medical community.
KEYWORDS: peer review, medical societies, medical profession, scientific standards, scientific publishing

Targeting the American Market for Medicines, ca. 1950s–1970s: ICI and
Rhône-Poulenc Compared

By: Vivienne Quirke
PDF (Posted October 21, 2014)

SUMMARY: The forces that have shaped American medicine include a wide set of interrelated changes, among them the changing research, development, and marketing practices of the pharmaceutical industry. This article compares the research and development (R&D) and marketing strategies of the British group Imperial Chemical Industries (ICI, whose Pharmaceutical Division was spun off and merged with the Swedish company Astra to form AstraZeneca) and its French counterpart Rhône-Poulenc (now part of Sanofi-Aventis) in dealing with the American medical market. It examines how, in the process, the relationship between R&D and marketing was altered, and the firms themselves were transformed. The article also questions the extent to which their approaches to this market, one of the most significant markets for drugs in general, and for anticancer drugs in particular, became standardized in the period of “scientific marketing.”
KEYWORDS: anticancer drugs, American medical market, Imperial Chemical Industries, Rhône-Poulenc

Autopsy Issues in German Federal Republic Transplantation Legislation until 1997
By: Christoph Schweikardt
PDF (Posted October 21, 2014)

SUMMARY: This article analyzes the relevance of autopsy issues for German Federal Republic transplantation legislation until 1997 against the background of legal traditions and the distribution of constitutional legislative powers. It is based on Federal Ministry of Justice records and German Parliament documents on transplantation legislation. Transplantation and autopsy legislation started with close ties in the 1970s. Viewing transplantation legislation as relevant for future autopsy regulation contributed to the decision to stall transplantation legislation, because the interests of the federal government and the medical profession converged to avoid subsequent restrictions on the practice of conducting autopsies and procuring tissues for transplantation. Sublegal norms were insufficient for the prosecution of the organ trade and area-wide transplantation regulation after the reunification of Germany. In contrast to autopsy issues, legislative power for transplantation issues was extended to the federal level by an amendment to the constitution, allowing decision making for Germany as a whole.
KEYWORDS: transplantation history, autopsy history, German health system, history of health policy

Bulletin of the History of Medicine

Bulletin of the History of Medicine is the official journal of the American Association for the History of Medicine.

Volume: 88 (2014)
Frequency: Quarterly
Print ISSN: 0007-5140